Your summer clothes, swimwear and shorts are packed away. It is winter and soups, hot sugary drinks and stews are on the menu. We forget that as we start wearing more layers of clothes our bodies are not in your face. On average during winter we gain 2.6 -3 kg. To put it into perspective it is three one-kilogram tubs of margarine. The sad part is that we lose muscle and gain fat and most of us start the winter with excess weight. Winter is not an excuse to become chubby.
Evolution and genes
According to a study at The University of Exeter we want to eat more because our genes favour fat storage to survive the colder months. Historically food was more scares and more food were consumed in autumn to prevent starvation. The fact is that we are not affected by famines anymore and we have enough food available throughout the year. When we eat more, we store that fat – we do not burn it. Instead of eating those sweet, fatty, unhealthy foods you have the choice and control to make better food choices, control portion sizes and be proactive. We should be able to realise we had enough food, but we don’t because we eat artificial food not real wholesome foods that supply all the necessary nutrients.
Seasonal Affective Disorder
Lack of sunlight in winter can have a significant effect on mood and health. We get up and leave for work while still being dark and get home after the sun has set. Some people do develop Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) due to lack of sunlight. Due to the cold weather you may even go out less frequently on weekends and have less activities outside. Try to have lunch outside or even during a tea break. That extra little bit of sun may just do the trick.
The lack of sunlight in the winter can have a profound effect on melatonin that regulate sleep, but it can also play a role in appetite. Melatonin increase, we produce more of the hormone, during autumn and winter according to Dr Perry Barret at Aberdeen University that researches seasonal weight gain and the effect on appetite. In most mammals, this increase in melatonin reduces hunger — a normal response when food is scarce. However, in some species we get an opposite effect, and this may be the reason why humans are hungrier and gain more weight. This may be a good excuse for some.
I get fatter although I do not eat more
Most of vitamin D is synthesised by the skin. This can cause a problem as we cover ourselves with thick clothes and the skin are less exposed to sunlight during the winter months. Dr Dillon, senior lecturer in Nutrition at Lancaster University says that preliminary studies show that people with low vitamin D levels are fatter due to a reduced fat breakdown. Overweight and obese people have lower vitamin D levels. Boost your vitamin D by exposing the fore arms to about 20 minutes of sun per day and by eating more oily fish e.g. sardines, pilchards, mackerel, salmon and trout.
The hormone melatonin that is triggered by darkness makes us sleepier, but it can also increase appetite. Dr Perry Barrett at Aberdeen University researches seasonal weight gain in mammals. Normally melatonin reduces appetite due to scarce food sources however in humans we often get the opposite effect. That may be the reason for the increased hunger and weight gain. A good excuse!
The colder weather makes us more inactive. If we are not outdoors doing activities, we are in front of the TV and we associate eating while sitting on the couch. This is often sugary, fatty refined carbohydrates and even biltong and dried sausage.
Craving starchy high fat foods
During winter months we tend to change the type of food we eat. During summer months we tend to eat more starchy foods while in winter we go for fattier options.
According to Professor Craig Jackson, head of psychology at Birmingham City University, we need fattier foods as a pick me up because we are less happy when it is cold and dark, and we eat twice as much energy dense high kilojoule foods that is sweeter and/or fattier as pick me up. The dilemma we are faced with is that these foods cause sugar highs and lows that leave us with a constant tiredness and craving for more and the extra energy is then store as fat. We put on white fat that does not keep us warm instead of brown fat that babies have and is due to genetic programming increase metabolism and that is in abundance in babies. And metabolically active adults and it help with heat regulation.
Salt and sugar intake is higher.
Comfort foods are higher in sodium which can have an immediate effect on bloating and feeling heavier. We also tend to drink less water in winter and more speciality hot beverages like cappuccinos and lattes and alcohol. This adds to the high empty kilojoule load. Drink plenty of water even if it is hot water with a squeeze of lemon juice or plain herbal teas without milk.
Decrease in raw fresh products
We tend to eat more soups and stew and comfort foods to keep you warm that may have a high fat content rather than fresh fruit and vegetables. The latter will have less kilojoules.
How to avoid weight gain:
- Avoid refined white flour products like flour, potatoes, sugar, chocolates, cappuccinos, lattes and sweets.
- Add lots of high fibre foods such as seed loafs, fruits, vegetables, whole grains e.g. barley and brown rice, and legumes like lentils and beans. It fills you up and keep hunger at bay, stimulate the appetite-controlling hormone leptin, and keep glucose from flooding your blood stream.
- Be cautious of beverages, cereals, all processed foods like salad dressings, flavoured yogurts, desserts, alcohol.
- Eat more high-quality protein that will avoid muscle loss and support fat loss. Fish, chicken eggs are great options.